1.Describe how risk is measured in a given portfolio. When is a portfolio efficient? When is the portfolio inefficient?1. There are many ways to state stock returns. Discuss the differences between the P/E model and the Dividend-Growth Valuation Model.2.. What is meant by the terms expected and realized returns? Give clear examples.1. Describe the major human traits that tend to affect investment decisions. Draw your information from the textbook and the inputs by others in this discussion during the week.2.. What is the purpose of technical analysis and could it help the investment decision-making process? Why? 3. Explain the term moving average, and in what ways does this metric helps the decision-making process as compared to comparable metrics? 1.A call penalty protects whom from what? Why may firms choose to retire debt prior to maturity? Would you expect a callable bond to have a higher or lower coupon rate of interest than a noncallable bond?2. Discuss the question of liquidation priories in the event of insolvency as per the textbook for this course.1.Since fixed-income securities such corporate bonds have varying patterns of cash flows and expiration dates, what techniques can we use for identifying price volatility? Define and explain the techniques including related concepts that you would be using in your inputs. Giving examples, as usual, would help to get your perspective across with greater clarity.