1. Probable reasons for the collapse of Mayan civilization include all of the following exceptA) foreign invasion.B) population growth that outstripped available resources.C) prolonged droughts.D) an increase in the frequency of warfare.2. In which present-day state did the Chaco canyon culture exist?A) CaliforniaB) OhioC) New MexicoD) Maine3. Which of the following cultures did not produce a written language?A) MayaB) AxumiteC) Mero?D) Ancestral Pueblo4. This great classical city was apparently centrally planned, with a grid of streets, temples, and grand homes for the elite.A) AxumB) Chav?nC) Teotihuac?nD) Jenne-jeno5. This classical civilization developed significant cities but no encompassing state structure.A) Teotihuac?nB) Mero?C) the Niger ValleyD) the Maya6. Silk was the key trade item along the Silk Roads becauseA) it was used as currency in Central Asia.B) it was a symbol of high status in the Byzantine Empire and China.C) it was linked to the sacred in both Christianity and Buddhism.D) all of the above7. In the first centuries following its arrival in China, Buddhism had its greatest success converting which sector of the population?A) the peasantryB) government officialsC) merchantsD) townspeople8. Despite its successful spread into Central Asia along the Silk Roads, Buddhism was largely blocked from spreading westward by which faith?A) ChristianityB) ZoroastrianismC) HinduismD) Judaism9. During a period of intensified interaction in the fourteenth century in which much of the Eurasian landmass was unified by the Mongol Empire, the spread along the trade routes of Eurasia, devastating the populations of China, the Middle East, and Europe.10. The winds made Indian Ocean commerce possible.11. Which of the following was not a major development in Chinese society that took shape in the centuries following the collapse of the Han dynasty?A) the conquest of some portions of China by northern nomadsB) the beginning of Chinese migration southward toward the Yangzi River valleyC) the rejection of DaoismD) the growing influence of Buddhism on Chinese culture12. Which of the following technological innovations spread from China during the Tang or Song dynasty periods?A) the processing of sugarB) printingC) cannonsD) windmills13. During the Tang dynasty period, became a common practice, especially among elite women in China, in part because small size and delicacy had come to represent female beauty and eroticism.14. The Sui dynasty sought to solidify the unity of the Chinese state by a vast extension of the system.15. Which of the following was not a goal of the Chinese tribute system?A) to confirm Chinas superiority over other civilizationsB) to civilize the peoples who lived along Chinas bordersC) to extort wealth from neighbors to make up for Chinas trade deficitD) to manage Chinas relationships with northern nomads and other non-Chinese peoples16. Which of the following groups ultimately brought an end to the Byzantine Empire through a successful siege of Constantinople?A) PersiansB) Ottoman TurksC) Germanic tribesmenD) Mongols17. Which of the following Western European rulers was the first to be crowned by the pope as emperor of a revived Roman Empire?A) CharlemagneB) OdoacerC) Otto ID) none of the above18. The conversion of Prince to the Christian faith led to the expansion of Eastern Orthodoxy into Rus.19. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, slavery was replaced in Western Europe by a new economic and social relationship between lord and worker known as .20. The were wars that in European thinking were undertaken at Gods command.21. The development of after gunpowder arrived from China is a good example of how borrowed technologies spurred European inventions.22. The scientific study of nature, known as , separated itself from theology in the universities of Western Europe.23. The works of the classical Greek philosopher became the basis for university education in the West for the five centuries after 1200.24. The special tax imposed on Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, payment of which permitted them to continue to practice their own religion, was known as theA) jihad.B) umma.C) jizya.D) dhimmis.25. Located in Mecca, the was the most prominent shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia.26. Muslims believed that the caliphs were rightful political and military leaders, selected by the Islamic community.27. , an extensive body of Islamic law, is based on the Quran, the life and teachings of Muhammad, deductive reasoning, and the consensus of scholars.28. The religious tradition known as blends elements of Islam, such as belief in one universal God, with Hindu concepts, such as karma and rebirth.29. Who founded the Mongol Empire and became known as Chinggis Khan?A) OgodeiB) TemujinC) KhubilaiD) Mongke30. Why did pastoral societies emerge only in the Afro-Eurasian world and not in the Americas?A) a lack of environments suitable for pastoral societiesB) the military prowess of settled societiesC) a lack of large animals that could be domesticatedD) none of the above31. All of the following regions were incorporated into the Mongol Empire exceptA) Japan.B) Persia.C) Korea.D) China.32. In comparison to agrarian societies, pastoral societies in generalA) had less productive economies.B) offered women fewer restrictions and a greater role in public life.C) were frequently on the move.D) all of the above33. Which of the following resulted from Mongol rule over Russia?A) the adoption by Russian princes of completely mounted armiesB) the rise of Kiev to renewed prominence in Russian historyC) the adoption by Russian princes of the Mongols diplomatic rituals and court practicesD) all of the above34. Which of the following is true of Aztec religion?A) Human sacrifice, though important, was a very rare occurrence.B) Aztec religion encouraged the killing of enemies on the battlefield because their blood was key to nourishing the gods.C) The sun was central to all of life but tended to lose its energy in a constant battle against encroaching darkness.D) all of the above35. In both the Inca and Aztec empires, women and men operated in two separate but equivalent spheres, a gender system that scholars callA) gender parallelism.B) gender equivalency.C) gender equality.D) none of the above36. A key center of Islamic learning and culture in West Africa was the city ofA) Malacca.B) Timbuktu.C) Benin.D) Igbo.37. The European Renaissance began in present-dayA) Italy.B) Germany.C) France.D) England.38. The Chinese admiral captained a large imperial fleet into the Indian Ocean as far as the East African coast.39. In 1497, the Portuguese explorer launched a voyage that took him around the tip of South Africa and into the Indian Ocean.40. The Empire was the most impressive and enduring of the new Islamic states of the fifteenth century.Essay Questions: 10 points eachInstructions- Answers must clearly express your opinions, while providing historical evidence to explain why you think the way you do. Please write one to two extremely detailed paragraphs. Essays may be either typed and/or legibly handwritten. 1. Personal Reflection: Do you find convincing the long-established interpretation of pastoral societies being a destructive force in human history?2. Personal Reflection: Of all the fifteenth-century societies explored in Chapter 13, which would you have preferred to live in, and why?