2) A theory is different from an opinion or belief because it (p. 6) a. is considered true by many researchers. b. must be scientifically

2) A theory is different from an opinion or belief because it (p. 6) a. is considered true by many researchers. b. must be scientifically

2) A theory is different from an opinion or belief because it (p. 6)a. is considered true by many researchers.b. must be scientifically verified.c. provides a framework in which to observe childrens development.d. incorporates all aspects of childrens development.3) When theorists believe that development takes place in a process of stages, with changes emerging at specific times, they adopt a(n) view of development. (p. 7)a. integratedb. dynamicc. continuousd. discontinuous4) A researcher who believes that nature is the major influence on development would likely (p. 9)a. value programs or experiences aimed at promoting change.b. emphasize the stability of childrens characteristics.c. encourage early intervention to help children reach their potential.d. regard heredity and environment as interwoven.5) John Lockes view of the child as a tabula rasa, or blank slate, is a forerunner of (p. 12)a. the psychoanalytic perspective.b. the dynamic systems perspective.c. behaviorism.d. Piagets cognitive-developmental theory.6) Jean-Jacques Rousseaus philosophy includes two influential concepts, the concept of stage and the concept of (p. 12)a. continuity.b. balance.c. maturation.d. nurture.7) The methods of the normative approach, developed by Hall and Gesell, resulted in a better understanding of (p. 13)a. variation among children.b. nature and nurture as an interwoven network.c. cognition.d. typical development.8) In contrast to Freud, Erikson (p. 17)a. regarded early experiences as supremely important in shaping later behavior.b. emphasized each persons unique life history as worthy of study and understanding.c. recognized the lifespan nature of development.d. adopted a stagewise view of development.9) One strength of the psychoanalytic perspective is its emphasis on as worthy of study. (p. 18)a. the individuals unique life history b. the cultures influence on a childs developmentc. measurable patterns of behaviord. survival of the species10) Which of the following are forms of traditional behaviorism? (p. 19)a. Classical conditioning and operant conditioningb. Social learning and observational learningc. Vicarious learning and imitationd. Habituation and recovery11) According to Banduras social learning theory, a baby who waves his hand when someone waves to him is demonstrating (p. 19)a. self-efficacy.b. modeling.c. classical conditioning.d. adaptation.12) Which of the following is a limitation of behaviorism and social learning theory? (p. 20)a. offers too narrow a view of important environmental influencesb. overemphasizes childrens contributions to their own developmentc. does not have any practical applicationsd. is too vague to be tested empirically13) In Piagets cognitive-developmental theory, the stage of development characterized by the symbolic, illogical thinking of a young child is called the stage. (p. 21)a. sensorimotor b. preoperational c. concrete operationald. formal operational 14) The biological concept of is central to Piagets cognitive-developmental theory. (p. 20)a. equilibriumb. modificationc. adaptationd. evolution15) Which of the following techniques is used by information-processing theorists to map the precise steps that individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks? (p. 23)a. cognitive mapsb. schematic representationc. flowchartsd. mental operations charts16) Ethology, which has roots in the work of , is concerned with . (p. 24)a. Freud; conflictsb. Darwin; survivalc. Piaget; cognitiond. Rousseau; maturation17) Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky regarded cognitive development as (p. 26)a. a biologically mediated process.b. a continuous process.c. a socially mediated process.d. occurring independently of cultural values and tasks.18) Which statement is true of Vygotskys theory? (p. 26)a. It emphasizes the role of brain growth in cognitive change.b. It considers the influence of culture and social interaction on cognitive development.c. It stresses childrens capacity to shape their own development.d. It is concerned with the role of evolution and heredity on behavior.19) The information-processing approach views children as gradually improving in different cognitive skills. This theory offers a view of development. (p. 31)a. continuousb. discontinuousc. universald. stagewise20) Which of the following theories regards nurture as wholly responsible for development? (p. 31)a. information processingb. behaviorismc. sociocultural theoryd. ecological systems theory21) Jennifers mother volunteers as a room mother. This connection between home and school illustrates Bronfenbrenners (p. 27)a. mesosystem.b. exosystem.c. microsystem.d. macrosystem.22) What is necessary for welfare reform to succeed in promoting childrens development? (p. 35)a. It must make families self-sufficient.b. It must limit the amount of time a family can remain on welfare.c. It must result in a more adequate standard of living.d. It must guarantee that full-time work is available for parents.23) In the dynamic systems perspective, a change in any part of the integrated system results in the child (p. 29) a. reorganizing behavior.b. mastering new skills.c. becoming more mature.d. losing trust in the system.24) Dynamic systems researchers want to do a better job of explaining (p. 29)a. the human genetic heritage.b. the inner lives of children.c. variation in childrens development.d. brain activity in young children.25) A(n) society is less likely to make social programs for children and families a priority. (p. 34)a. individualistic b. integratedc. collectivistd. democratic


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