Exploring CEO Leadership Styles in Change Management for Nonprofit Organizations Custom Essay Help

Exploring CEO Leadership Styles in Change Management for Nonprofit Organizations Custom Essay Help

Abstract A positive influence has been indicated with parental involvement in children s education and has been shown to present an important variable in line of education. The research focuses on the ways to indulge in increasing the parental attendance in teacher-parent meetings in Norwegian school system with a view of increasing the minority parents attendance to the meeting. The minority parents and students origin include Afghanistan, Lithuania, china, Russia, Iraq, Pakistan, Vietnam, Poland, Morocco, Iran, and Kurdistan. The research employs qualitative measures in identifying the measures to employ in increasing the parental attendance. The research presents one-on-one questions with the minority parents with involvement of interpreters. The interpreters were responsible for making the phone calls for the interviews. The research aims at improving the teacher parent input. Data is obtained through qualitative methods and analyzed for conclusion. Introduction Parental engagement in the schools has been depicted to result to improved performance on education level by the children or students. The school also tends to benefit in becoming better schools while the learning process becomes even better. Children require complementary efforts both from their teachers and the parents in the development of their cognitive ability in understanding and learning in the school system. The roles of the parents with the combination of those of the teachers at school reinforce together in ensuring there is provision of a constant message on the requirement of the students in learning and reading. Parental attendance and involvement in school meetings plays an important role in the education success of children. However, there is a drop in attendance by parents who are from minority groups and the lack of involvement in their children s education poses a threat in their development. The research seeks to establish ways on how to increase the parental attendance to the parent-teacher meeting in schools. The research focuses on the minority parents in a Norwegian school. The benefits of the parental or family involvement in school matters of children are documented in the school. However, the main purpose being improving the learning of the student, there has been lower attendance by the parents in school meeting. Many schools are still struggling to actively engage the guardians and parents in schooling of their children. The majorities who get involved are the middle income earners, the high income earners, and those whose home culture is in complete match to the assumptions and the norms that are observed in the school. The low income earners, minority parents and families who have limited knowledge of the Norwegian language are underrepresented in parent-teacher meetings. Statement of the Problem Parental attendance to the parent-teacher school meeting is one way of improving parental engagement and involvement in the academic matters of the children. The involvement has been cited to be a contributing factor towards academic excellence in school. Their available data in the school indicates lack and failure of involvement by the parent from the minority group with comparison to the major one. The school has devoted to get to the bottom of the problem and try to increase the participation level of the parents by increasing their attendance to parent-teacher meeting. Aims and objectives The sole purpose of the research is to improve or increase the parental attendance to the school parent-teacher meetings as well as the parental participation in their children schoolwork and progress. Another aim of the research id to increase parental involvement and engagement strategies that are past social, cultural, and economic boundaries thus encouraging innovation in the part of learning. To improve the academic excellence of the school and the student through increased parent involvement Purpose of the Study The research investigates on the measures to use in order to increase the parental attendance in parent-teacher meetings at school. The involvement of the teachers and the parents together has been identified to have a positive result to the children academic excellence as well as a cognitive behavior development even as they progress to higher learning. The study seeks to establish the gaps left by early researchers on the methods of increasing parental attendance and involvement in schools. Scope of the Study The study is conducted in a Norwegian school where I have been a teacher. The children age at the school ranges from 12-15 years of age. The parents and pupils in our school comes from Turkey, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Lithuania, Poland, Vietnam, China, Russia, Somalia, Kurdistan, Iraq, Iran, Morocco. The study involves the sample of a population and the research will involve the use of interpreters. I will do the research while maintaining anonymity of the parents who participated. The research will involve the use of school resources as I was a teacher in the institution. Theoretical Framework The research is guided by a theoretical framework that was instituted by Hammersley & Atkinson in 1996. They come to an agreement with scholars that increasing parental attendance in the school meetings provides an important approach in revitalizing and improving the learning and reading of the children. The authors identify various ways through which the parents can attend various school meeting by volunteering, collaboration with the teachers and the school authority, joint decision making through the parent teachers association (PTA) and enhanced delivery of progress report about their children by the teachers (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1996). The parent attendance is viewed to result to parental involvement which in turn adds up to academic excellence for the children. In addition the perception that has been taken by the Norwegian parents is that the school meetings are boring. The parents would rather be involved in some other activities. The minority presume that the traditional Norwegian parent-teacher meetings are boring thus they fail to attend. The meetings have existed traditionally with a one way communication which consequently makes it boring to the minority parents. They would love to be involved in a dialogue but the problem occurs since they are not given the space. An organized meeting should have a well plotted dialogue and in the case of the research there is also the language barrier restriction thus the low attendance from the minority parents. Communication should be a two way stream without the language barrier and should allow the participation without any fear of raising the questions. LITERATURE REVIEW In their research, Drummond and Stipek (2004) identify with the minority parents in the school by illustrating their tendency of not attending school meetings. The teachers also were believed to possess the belief that the parents have lack of interest in knowing their children education progress. While the belief is more prominent, there may be other reason than that for the failure of attending school meeting by parents. The authors identify the commonality to be a reason for not attending as the minority does not conform to their norms of the school surroundings and culture. They also suggest that the low income and middle income earners are pre-occupied in their income search measures when the snub the school parent-teacher meetings. The authors fail to identify more reasons behind the failure to attend in order to bring up the ways of increasing the minority attendance rather they focus on the question why the low attendance is experienced. Feldman (2003) in his book indicates that the parents may not have the knowledge on how to be involved in the school curriculum in the betterment of their children education. They may lack the knowledge of the role they are expected to play by the teacher and this keeps them from attending the school meetings. Feldman involve studies that show low attendance by minority group in school parent-teacher meetings. Feldman indicates that although lack of knowledge on their roles in the meeting does not mean they are not involved, it also indicates that the school has not undertaken the role of informing the parents the capacity in which they are supposed to attend and the role expected from them. Some of the parents also misinterpret the attendance to be in the form of helping their children with their homework and thus perceive to have played their stipulated roles to their children education. The education of the parents also matters when it comes to their attendance in the school parent-teacher meetings. The minority parent backgrounds present cases where the parents themselves did not receive much of education thus they may be unwilling to attend the meetings (Delgado-Gaitan, 2004). The teacher themselves may be unaware of the situations and the parents may want to keep the information unknown thus they fail to attend school meetings. Delgado-Gaitan indicates that there are those parents who are educated but feel not qualified with the involvement in school work. The lack of education by the minority parents breaks down to communication. The parents may also not understand the messages the school sends to them persisting on their involvement and thus choose to ignore them. Failure to identify with the information sent by the school keeps them unaware of the school meetings thus the failure to attend. The research does not explore the modern interpretation services that are available through the internet for the parents. According to Howe (2005), parents from the minority group observe different culture when it comes to education. They may also involve their past experience with schools in making decision to attend the parent-teacher school meetings. The parents perceive the teachers are not doing their duties when they ask questions on their children thus they may become uncomfortable when talking to the teachers. The cultures also may stipulate that education is not important and the perception hinders the parents from attending the parent-teacher meetings at school. METHODOLOGY The research presents a qualitative research in the field of social science. The research requires and action research approach as it involves the finding of various reasons as to why people do things in a certain way which in this case is fail to attend parent-teacher meetings. Research Design The research design employed here includes survey research design where social research is applied. The research tool entails coming one-on-one with the subject under study and the goal of the survey is to gather specific information (Everett, Euris,& Inger Furseth.2012). The results in the study are used in the understanding of knowledge of a particular group, attitudes, or their beliefs. The social world should be put into study without the distortion of the natural state by the researcher when it comes to social research (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1996). The social research calls for interviews to be the primary source of data hence suitable in the research. The research design has an added advantage in the research when it comes to the standardization of data collected. The research design is simple and gathers information which is not available from other sources hence originality maintained. In the research, the design collects data on the barriers to the parent attendance to the school meeting, the level of involvement of the parent with the child, the teacher-parent relationship maintained in the school. The research entails the use of interviews and questionnaires which were administered to the select parents through phone interviews which were done from the school. I chose to use the interpreters with a consideration that befits of the method outweighs the disadvantages. The disadvantage here is that the questions raised may be changed during the translation into the Norwegian language and that important information may be missed during the translation. The interpreters can also be selective on what to include during the interviews. Population The population in the research includes the parents from the minority representation in a school in Norway. Sample The sample of the parents was drawn basing on the nationality of origin in the school. The parent information was analyzed and sample to come up with the sample population which fit in the minority group. The sampling procedure in selecting the parents was systematic random sampling to ensure every minority group is represented. Instruments for Data Collection The interpreters acquitted themselves with the required questions and the involved the minority parents through phone interviews from the school. Questions raised in the interviews were well plotted to bring out the best results. Data Collection Permission to conduct the research had to be sought first from the school head teacher who authorized the research and agreed to pay for the expenses incurred in the research. Thereafter, the selected parents were notified by email on the research being conducted and were assigned their interpreter. They were assured their identities will remain anonymous. The school also provided the rooms where interviews were held. The minority parent groups required interpreters who were hired and paid by the school hence the phone calls proved to be easier. Data Analysis The data was analyzed in qualitative manner and was coded and categorized in order to draw conclusions. The interpreters had the work of coding the phone interview results in order to make deductions from the data obtained. Problems Encountered Some of the parents had busy schedules and thus their availability for an interview took a lot of time. Some parents could not provide their information in good faith even after being assured their identities will not be revealed. Limitation of the Study The study managed to reach the objectives but the limitation is that the study was carried out only in one school. The implication here is that the result cannot be used to generalize the parents of other schools in Norway. Secondly, the literature review material on the title of the research and the studies similar to mine in Norway was scarce. Thirdly, the research may have some levels of subjectivity as I was the one who was doing the research personally with the inclusion of the interpreters. Significance of the Study Findings from the research will be used to improve the teacher-parent meetings in school as well as add up to self-efficacy when it comes to the part of the children. The study will be used by the school in improving academic excellence on the part of the student and the school itself. The study also provides data that can be used by the government in implementing strategies that encourage the involvement and attendance of the parents to school meetings. Reference Delgado Gaitan, C. (2004). Involving Latino Families in Schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Drummond, K. V., Stipek, D. (2004). Low-Income Parents Beliefs about Their Role in Children s Academic Learning. The Elementary School Journal 104(3), 197-213. Retrieved on September 25, 2005, from ProQuest Epstein, J. L. & Rodriguez Jansom, N. (2004). School, Family and Community Partnerships Link the Plan. The Education Digest, 69(6), 19-23. Retrieved on September 25, 2005, from ProQuest. Everett, Euris L. og Inger Furseth.( 2012). Master thesis:How to begin ? and complete . 2 utgave. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget,. (182 p) Feldman, S. (2003). On the home front. Teaching PreK-8, 33(7), 6. Retrieved on September 25, 2005, from ProQuest. Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (1996). Ethnography: Principles in practice. London: Routledge. Howe, F. & Simmons B. J. (2005). Nurturing the Parent-Teacher Alliance. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, 53, 1-37. Retrieved on September 25, 2005, from ProQuest. Okasha, S. (2002). Philosophy of science: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


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