In order to achieve an acceptable turnaround time Assignment Help

In order to achieve an acceptable turnaround time Assignment Help

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study There are different types of non-profit organizations according to visions and missions (Dimitrios, Sakas, & Vlachos, 2013). During change process, these organizations CEOs adopt different leadership and communication styles to achieve objectives of the change processes (Sehyan, 2013; Peterson, Galvin, & Lange2012). Some of the common reasons cited for change within the non-profit organizations include untenable salary wage bills, change in project paths or programs according to donors, and sponsor needs and variations in funding sources (Rocha et al., 2015; Papadakis & Barwise,2002). In the proposed study, I will explore how CEOs in non-profit organizations are able to balance key roles according to their leadership and communication styles. The first chapter of this proposal is in various sections. In the background of study I have elaborated the concept of change in the context of non-profit organizations. I have explained the problem statement in general, but in the successive chapters I will address specific issues of CEOs leading change within non-profit organizations. In the purpose of the study, I have provided direction on how data will be collected. Since this will be a qualitative research, I presented the conceptual framework to connect past known theories and the current study purpose. I have posed the central and sub-questions for the research to guide the scope of the study. Within The nature of study I have highlighted type of data to be collected and analysed. I have defined some key terms of reference, limitations, delimitations and scope of study in this chapter. Finally, in the significance of study I have provided terms of professional practice, while recognizing gaps in theories and studies and expected social change. Background of the Study CEOs in organizations have different leadership responsibilities (Peterson, Galvin, & Lange,For non-profit organizations undergoing change process, these responsibilities include establishing relationship with other non-profit organizations, seeking donors and sponsors, seeking and participation in various impact programs (Dimitrios et al., 2013). In the proposed study, I will seek to explore how CEOs are able to balance different key roles in non-profit organizations during change process to success, according to their leadership and communication styles. The phenomenon of change is common in many any non-profit organization under transition, where leadership prepares the way for smooth operations during all phases of implementation (Worley & Mohrman, 2014). Non-profit organizations have tripod pillars that could guarantee success. These include the operational strategy, capital resources and the leadership style (Clark,During change process, the CEO s leadership style should inspire the workers to do more and accommodate new risks for the objectives to be achieved (Chad, 2015). In the proposed study I will address gaps in literature on the challenges that CEOs face to balance different key roles in non-profit organizations according to their leadership and communication styles. Many non-profit organizations have poor leadership, because of a common belief that such organizations cannot employ and retain some of the most talented skills in the labor market due to their high wage demand (Patrizia & Massimmo, 2014). Many non-profit organizational boards often hire qualified CEOs with effective leadership and communication skills if there is need for a change process in the future (Hess & Bacigalupo, 2013). In order for non-profit organizations to succeed in change processes, the CEO s leadership style must be objective (Osula & Ng, 2014). There are gaps in studies regarding how the non-profit organization CEOs can harness desired leadership and communication style to sustain change process. Non-profit CEOs need to complement their knowledge with proper communication for success during change process (Chad, 2015). There are gaps in current literature on how non-profit organizational systems could influence the CEO s leadership and communication style as this affects the success of change process. Different change processes occur in non-profit organization. These include program changes, employee restructuring, adoption of new and more efficient working systems, expansion or reduction of operational territories, and cost reduction (Osula & Ng, 2014). From the onset of the change process, CEOs of non-profit organizations are expected to lead strategies that will make the employees support their change goals and for reducing passive and active resistance from those who perceive the process as having negative impact on their jobs (Butler & Wilson, 2015). The CEO is required to communicate with the non-profit organization employees who will be directly invited into the change process at different capacities (Osula & Ng, 2014). In the proposed study I will fill literature gaps on how the CEOs leadership and communication style in non-profit organizations could affect the change outcomes. Problem Statement There have been several failures during change processes within non-profit organizations have succeeded in the last two decades (Rocha et al., 2015). Among the reasons cited for the failure is leadership and communication style (Grant& Marshak, 2011) and these from one non-profit organization to another. Modern change management problems illustrate presence of other factors including resource and institutional strategies (Worley & Mohrman, 2014). CEOs leadership approaches such as involvement of all stakeholders, communication of the change process, use of data to justify change and resilience are key determinants of success in change process (Pieterse, Cani?ls, & Homan,The general problem is that some CEO leadership styles can undermine a change management initiative (Oreg & Berson, 2011). A non-profit organization may have excellent strategies, sufficient capital resources, but lack good CEO leadership that will directly affect change management in order to achieve its overall goals and objectives (Lord & Shondrick, 2011). The situation is worse in circumstances where change is needed or the non-profit organization goes under (Hinrichs, 2015). In fact, change process in many non-profit organizations have resulted in crises due to resistance from some stakeholders who may not be willing to leave their comfort zones or embrace transition and support the CEO (Hess & Bacigalupo, 2013). The specific problem is that communication in the CEO leadership styles can affect change management in a non-profit organization. Many non-profit organizations have not succeeded in the past in their change efforts to introduce new plans, programs or systems due to lack of effective communication from CEO to all the primary stakeholders involved in the implementation process (Battilana & Casciaro,Some CEOs fail to uphold effective communication between employees and the management (Osula & Ng, 2014). In the proposed study I will focus on this problem in the non-profit organizations. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the proposed case study is to explore how the CEO s leadership and communication style could affect change management in non-profit organizations. The CEO s leadership style during change management can cause resistance from primary stakeholders, affect ease of tackling challenges, implementation duration and outcomes of the process (Dionne et al., 2014). In the proposed study, I will explore the leadership styles of six CEO of non-profit organization to discover the link between communication and outcomes of change process. As part of the literature review, I will access secondary data source from seminal papers and peer reviewed journals. Additionally, I will conduct interviews to using open ended questionnaires (Harris & Brown, 2010) target CEOs from six nonprofit organizations within Dallas, Texas and gain their insight on various issues on the topic. Each interview is scheduled to take 45 minutes. CEOs from non-profit organizations with experience in change management indifferent fields are purposively sampled to gain wide professional views on the topic. If any of the non-profit organizations who CEOs are scheduled for interviews are currently implementing changes, I will use institutional ethnography as another source of data (Prodinger, Rudman, & Shaw, 2013). Among the proposed organizations to be sampled include churches, local government, non-government organizations, national government department, social groups, and others depending on their convenience availability and consent to participate in the study interviews. The following will be the study objectives: First, to explore the most successful leadership style (Yukl, 2015) from the experiences for CEOs who have managed change process in their non-profit organisations. Second, to explore the internal and external environmental factors such as the social, demographic, technological, economic, political and regulatory forces of a non-profit organization, which determine the CEOs leadership styles during a change processes (Hussain, Russell, & Haddad, 2014). Third, to understand the most effective communication styles (Zerfass, Vercic, & Weisenberg, 2016) applied by CEOs leading change processes within non-profit organizations. The fourth recommendation is on what the CEOs of non-profit organizations could do to improve leadership and communication during change processes and increase success rates (Zerfass, Vercic, & Weisenberg, 2016). This important because most non-profit organizations contribute to social change and their leadership and communication styles matter (Hernandez, Eberly, Avolio, & Johnson, 2011). Successful leadership and communication style could have a direct correlation with the social change outcomes as pursued by the CEOs and respective non-profit organizations (Lord, Hannah, & Jennings, 2011). Research Questions The central research question for this study is: how does the CEO s leadership and communication style affect change management in non-profit organizations? The specific research questions are: Which leadership styles are most effective for CEOs of non-profit organizations during change process? Which factors affect the leadership style of CEOs of non-profit organization pursuing goals of change? How is communication of CEOs in non-profit organizations critical for averting failure during change process? What more should CEOs in non-profit organizations do in terms of leadership and communication styles to ensure success during change process? Conceptual Framework In defining the conceptual framework, I will adopt mixed methodology including case study, interviews and institutional ethnography in the proposed study because these can accommodate qualitative designs of the research (Harris & Brown, 2010; Prodinger, Rudman, & Shaw, 2013). I will define the conceptual framework to show how all the relevant data and information that will be gathered using these methods are related to the research questions and objectives. Within the discipline change management, CEO leadership and communication styles will be explored and compared among the outcomes of the sampled non-profit organizations (Rocha et al., 2015; Zerfass, Vercic, & Weisenberg, 2016). The conceptual framework that I will adopt in this study is called the core capacity model, which many non-profit organizations adopt to implement change process. This conceptual framework was developed by Paul Connolly, Senior Vice President TCC Group in 2008. The proponents of this conceptual framework (Hussain et al., 2014) assume that the non-profit organization operates under dynamic political, technological, social and economic environment as shown in the figure 1 below. Figure 1: Core Capacity Model of Change Management (Hussain et al., 2014). Hussain et al., (2014) stated that concept framework enables CEO to execute the following skills during change management. These capacities include visionary leadership, consultative management, technical skills and flexibility to adapt to changes (Goldman,At the core of this conceptual framework, the CEO should be aware of the non-profit organization s history, values, beliefs, rituals, language and structures that can determine success of the change process (Grant & Marshak, 2011). The conceptual framework addresses CEO s capacity to communicate with employees of the non-profit organization on the change vision and provide directions that will inspire success (Hussain et al., 2014). The conceptual framework anticipates that the CEO of the non-profit organization will lead the change process at the right stages to achieve maximum outcomes (Garcia-Morales, Jimenez-Barrionuevo, & Gutierrez-Gutierrez, 2011). The conceptual framework outlines that it is enough for the CEO to act as the change initiator even if he or she is not embedded into the detailed plans (Marquis & Tilcsik, 2013). Overall, the conceptual framework guides the outcome of the study of the non-profit organization change, depending on the leadership style adopted by the CEO (Sarros, Cooper, & Santora, 2011) and to focus on the study objectives. The conceptual framework outlines the adaptive capacity of the CEO non-profit organization to evaluate the intended change process and convince the internal and external stakeholders to understand the goals and benefits (Hussain et al., 2014). The conceptual framework outlines the CEO s special leadership skills for assessing the non-profit organizations function that requires change (Sarros et al., 2011). The conceptual framework outlines how the CEOs leadership styles will ease networking with other stakeholders to add value to the change process (Carter, Armenakis, Field, & Mossholder,The conceptual framework illustrates how the CEOs leadership skills can consolidate different sources of information before the decision for change is completed in the non-profit programs or projects (Lansford, Clements, Falzon, Aish, & Rogers, 2010). The conceptual framework outlines CEO s leadership styles to ensure the change process is effective and efficient (Dinh & Lord,The conceptual framework explains how CEOs leadership experiences is required in managing human resource, work scheduling, financial assets and other material for successful change processes in any non-profit organization (Eagly & Chin, 2010). From the presented conceptual framework, some non-profit organization changes could be instigated by limitations and the CEO could be seeking for rational utilization and operations to sustain what is available internally and from program sponsors (Sehyan, 2013). The conceptual framework illustrates how the CEO can be aware of the economic, political, regulatory, social demographics and technological factors then call for special leadership styles for change process to be implemented (Brown,Finally, the conceptual framework explains the technical domain and defines the CEO s leadership style that will enable the non-profit organization to access, utilize and dispose of equipment, machinery, assets, staffs and other projects that are under different values successful (Hussain et al., 2014). The conceptual framework guides the CEO to be aware of technical facilities that are obsolete and require change since their maintenance is expensive to the non-profit organization (Epstein & McFarlan, 2011). The conceptual framework shows which The CEOs special leadership skills in program designs and models are viable or due for change to suit the vision and mission of the non-profit organization (Eagly and Chin, 2010). I will review the above discussed conceptual framework on how CEOs of non-profit organizations could enjoin all these key areas to adopt the most appropriate leadership style for successful change process. Nature of the Study The phenomenon being explored is: how does the CEO s leadership and communication style affect change management in non-profit organizations? The nature of study is leadership pragmatism during change process (Kriger & Zhovotbryukh,As a research philosophy, I will adopt pragmatism to understand whether CEOs of non-profit organizations are better of executing change using transformational, transactional and laissez-faire during change process (Carter et al.,Using the pragmatic leadership of change process (Magretta, 2012) in non-profit organization under the CEOs leadership styles, I could shed more light on the subject. I will use the new information to explore the relationship between CEO s communication styles and the success rate of change processes in different non-profit organizations (Worley & Mohrman, 2014; Zerfass, Vercic, & Weisenberg, 2016). I will use mixed methodology of selected and relevant designs in the proposed in the study with the justification of each inclusion or exclusion criteria to enable me to collect different forms of qualitative data. These include case study, observations, and interviews (Malina, N?rreklit, & Selto, 2011). From the proposed nature of study, there are different sources of data that I will use to address the research question. I will begin with literature review; I will rely on multiple sources of data from published sources to understand the grounded theories like change, leadership and communication styles of CEOs (Zerfass, Vercic, & Weisenberg, 2016) of non-profit organizations to demonstrate methodological triangulation. The justification mixed methodology is for triangulating of case study, interview and observations because organizational change management has some social dimensions which required in-depth analysis corroboration of findings without methodological bias (Malina et al., 2011). Under the research designs, I will apply case study to address the research objectives and question. The case study design will assist me to understand leadership and communications styles that guarantee success during change processes in non- profit organizations (Rocha et al., 2015) that are not easy to determine using experimentation design. The rationale for adopting the case study designs is because change leadership is largely qualitative process that requires action research design for purposes of assessing causes and effect. The case study design will enable me to reach better clarity regarding the central research question by gathering views and communication styles of CEO within the non-profit organizations (Savin-Baden & Major, 2013) that cannot be accomplished by survey design. The case study design will enable me to explore the CEO leadership paradigms and communication challenges within the non-profit organizations setting that are not easy to establish using other methods like survey. The case study design will enable me to explore the real world problems in non-profit organizations context including the CEOs and their choice of communication during change process that are not easy to determine using archival research design (Zerfass, Vercic, & Weisenberg, 2016). I will use summative analysis for the case study findings to ensure outcomes have content, construct and abstract validity that align to the research objectives and questions (Wang et al., 2011). During analysis of the case study analysis I will ensure construct validity using triangulation of evidence from the non-profit organization CEOs as the main informants. I will ensure the research has internal validity by looking out for replicating or matching evidence that clarify unclear grounded theories or concepts. I will ensure external validity by looking out for replicating logic among the findings of interview from the CEO informants. I will ensure data and information reliability by ensuring proper case study protocol are adhered to. (Rocha et al., 2015), The other sources of data will comprise of face to face interviews of CEOs of non-profit organizations using questionnaire designed with open ended items. The rationale of the same questions for all the CEOs during interviews is to enable me to standardize items to all the respondents (Malina et al., 2011). The open-ended questions in the interviews will give the CEOs the opportunity to express their views freely about change processes (Oreg & Berson, 2011).The findings from the interviews of the non-profit organization CEOs are analysed by thematic coding and matching of informant views contribution with the study topic (Harris & Brown,2010). Finally, I will also use institutional ethnography method (Prodinger, Rudman, & Shaw, 2013) to confirm leadership and communication styles among the ten sampled non-profit organizations. The rationale of the institutional ethnography or observation method is to enable me to capture data that is not easy to explore using the interview method and to become more objective in the study findings (Malina et al., 2011). The findings of observation method will be analysed by matching replicate leadership phenomenon among the participating non-profit organizations CEO (Carter et al.,I plan to spend at least five hours in each non-profit organization to observe and explore how the CEOs lead and communicate to their staff members during change process. Some research designs will be excluded because they are not suitable for the proposed study (Malina et al., 2011). First, the experimentation design is not suitable because the non-profit organizations differ in structure, mission and vision. In the context of the proposed study, experimentation would be about measuring cause of change process, leadership and communication effects in non-profit organizations (Zerfass, Vercic, & Weisenberg, 2016). However, it is not possible to set constant variables as required for experimentation that apply uniformly to all for non-profit organizations because the change causes differ. Therefore experimentation design was excluded (Malina et al., 2011). The survey method is also excluded because the target population of CEOs from non-profit organization is just six. Additionally, most of the information I will seek is narrative or descriptive in nature. In-depth knowledge of the impact of leadership and communication styles by CEOs is not easy to gain via survey because the sample size is too small to yield outcomes for scientific generalization or peer reviews (Malina et al., 2011). Finally, the archival research design also excluded because the phenomenon of change is very dynamic and I am interested in more recent events and contemporary information within the non-profit organizations. The archival research design tends to be historically descriptive and this may not serve the current study purpose. There could be lack of archived data about the six non-profit organizations regarding their past change process, therefore, this design is inappropriate for the proposed study (Malina et al., 2011). Definitions Change is a term that refers to how organizations or institutions act deliberately to deviate from the norms to achieve defined goals and objectives (Grant & Marshak, 2011; Liebhart & Garcia-Lorenzo, 2010). Communication is a term which refers to the process of a message sender reaching the recipient with information for a particular purposes with the later expected to reciprocate or affirm as a sign of effort effectiveness (Zerfass, Vercic, & Weisenberg, 2016). Leadership behaviour is a term that refers to how subjects are guided, coordinated and supported whether by transformational, transactional and laissez-faire styles to meet organizational or institutional goals and responsibilities (Donnell, Yukl, & Taber, 2012; Eagly &Chin, 2010). Non-Profit Organization refers institutions that rely on alternative metrics to measure success or administer impact other than financial metrics as common with for-profit organizations (Epstein & McFarlan, 2011). Organization is a term that refers to a formal setting where human and material resources are put together to pursue certain to meet set vision and missions (Pieterse, Cani?ls, & Homan,Assumptions I made various assumptions in this study. First, that the outcomes of the study will be give fair impression of the leadership styles of CEOs around Dallas, Texas who management non-profit organizations. This is because most non-profit organizations operations have some resemblance and conformity to the definitions provided for the term in this chapter. The second assumption is that leadership capabilities advanced in the conceptual framework will be applicable to all the sampled non-profit organizations in the proposed study. This is because the conceptual framework covers most basic CEO leadership roles in non-profit organizations. The third assumption is that the proposed qualitative study will provide adequate evidence for guiding non-profit CEOs around Dallas, Texas on the most progressive leadership and communication style. This is because the participants in the proposed study will be selected from non-profit organizations like churches, local government, non-government organizations, national government department, social groups and others. Scope and Delimitations The proposed geographical scope of this study is Dallas, Texas. The proposed institutional scopes are limited to non-profit organizations within Dallas, Texas. The proposed study key informants are CEOs of the selected non-profit organizations. The six specific non-profit categories where CEOs will be drawn from churches, local government, local non-government organizations, national government department, social groups and international relief organizations. The rationale for having this wide selection or types of non-profit organizations is to provide rich background of information and improve the generalizability and transferability of findings in successive studies (Malina et al.,I will be delimited to CEO leadership style other than transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership (Nohe et al., 2013). This is because the operational environments of non-profit organizations are unique and CEOs are at liberty of adopting the most effective leadership style to accomplish change process. Thereafter, I will carry out a cross-analysis of the most common and successful leadership and communication style among the sampled non-profit organizations CEOs. In the proposed study, I will also focus on some global communication styles to understand circumstances under which CEOs of non-profit organizations adopt according to their needs. This is justified because CEOs for non-profit organizations with similar programs or projects could be facing similar challenges requiring common leadership and communication styles. Limitations I will limit the proposed study to case study method, CEO interviews and institutional observation of six non-profit organizations within Dallas, Texas that have previously or in the process of change. This mixed methodology and associated designs has limitations because the responses are not quantifiable and tested by statistical approached to increase the outcome transferability. I propose to interview six CEOs of non-profit organizations with different programs. I will limit the number of CEOs due to the time frame of carrying out the research and budgeted resources. Additionally, I propose to limit the number of CEO participants because non-profit organizations have unique operations and of leadership styles and change process may not occur smoothly. Finally, in the proposed study, to avoid bias issues, I have spread the samples to different types of non-profit organizations CEOs. I proposed this spread ensure different CEOs participate in the study and since non-profit organizations have a tendency of benchmarking operations and leadership styles. Significance of the Study The proposed study will be significant in three main areas. First, I will use the proposed study outcomes to fill gaps in theories and studies related to the topic. Second I will use the proposed study outcomes to increase professional knowledge to CEOs of non-profit organizations on how to communicate during change process for the best results. Third, I will use the proposed study outcomes to offer positive social change among non-profit organizations that are planning or in change process. Significance to Practice The proposed study has significance for practice particularly in professional applications. From the outcomes of the proposed study, the sponsors of non-profit programs could understand the impact of CEO leadership style on the future of the organizations (Donnell et al.,Other stakeholders in non-profit organizations such as board of directors could use the new professional findings to relate the leadership styles used by the respective CEOs and change management (Nohe et al., 2013). Additionally, CEO s leadership style during change process in non-profit organizations is important to bring out the capabilities and skills (Cater et al.,However, if the CEO s leadership style unsuitable, there could be resistance to change contrary to the non-profit organizations mission and vision (Oreg & Berson, 2011). During change process at non-profit organizational, the CEO may seek to restructure staff position to achieve new goals (Carter et al.,The CEO s leadership style could come into focus to demonstrate which and how training is accomplished (Sarros et al., 2011). In the proposed study, I will show significance in professional practice from how the CEO s leadership styles motivate successful change process in any non-profit organization (Papadakis & Barwise, 2002). Significance to Theory From the outcomes of the proposed study I could provide important theoretical information to the stakeholders of the non-profit organizations on the duties and responsibilities of CEO while managing change process. For example, the CEOs of non-profit organizations could know the extent to which the change outcomes will be based on the preferred leadership style (Hernandez, et al., 2011). This implies that CEOs of non-profit organization should not make assumptions about the effects of their leadership styles as a guarantee to success in change process (Kriger & Zhovotbryukh,From the outcomes of the proposed study, I will fill some gaps in theory on how CEOs leadership styles overcome passive resistance to change during non-profit organizational change process (Brown,In the proposed study, I will fill theory gaps on how CEOs leadership styles affect their choices and strategies for ensuring the non-profit organizations change processes are successful. Indeed, virtues like servant leadership are rarely learnt in school (Peterson, Galvin, & Lange, 2012), yet CEOs need the same skills to steer changes within the non-profit organizations. Many non-profit organizations often undertake changes in long term stages, which imply that some CEOs have never realized the full experiences because of their stepwise leadership styles (Eagly & Chin, 2010). From the outcome of the proposed study, I could fill in theory gaps about leadership styles and impact on change process. Among the key elements of leadership styles is the communication method adopted by the CEO and other managers within the organizations (Clark,Theoretically, the participatory leadership behaviour leads involves all the organizations members in making decisions for the organization (Osula & Ng, 2014). A CEO adopting participatory leadership behaviour could be successful in mobilizing and influencing majority of the organizations stakeholders towards change process compared to other with autocratic leadership style (Marquis & Tilcsik, 2013). This is the case as CEOs using participatory leadership behaviour are likely to build consensus and be understood faster before, during and after implementation of the change process (Worley & Mohrman, 2014). To the contrary, CEOs who shun participatory leadership behaviour are likely to face some resistance to change, because sections of the employees could choose to be uncooperative and sabotage the change process leading to the organizations failures (Osula & Ng, 2014). Organisation employees require coaching, motivation, guidance from CEOs to be able to solve complex problems and challenges coming along the change


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