In the Huntsville Alabama community in which you a Assignment Help

In the Huntsville Alabama community in which you a Assignment Help

1. Abstract Research and Development projects funded by the government have been very challenging while trying to clarify factors contributing to their success. Since the implementation of these projects takes a long time and the success is rarely tangible, there is a need for an in depth study to measure these factors and their implications on the project success. This research proposal aims to present a study to be conducted in order to evaluate the critical success factors in managing government funded R&D projects. The study will be based on a mixed method methodology which will consist of a questionnaire to cover the quantitative method in data collection followed by a set of interviews with key people to cover the qualitative method and confirm the data collected through the questionnaire. Successful implementation of this research will require careful identification of various organizations that are undertaking government funded projects in Abu Dhabi. After the completion of the study a list of key success factors of managing the government funded R&D projects will be forwarded to the decision makers in order to ensure successful implementation for future projects. Also this study will add to the existing body of knowledge in the literature especially that it will cover the Emirate of Abu Dhabi where very few literature is available. 2. Introduction Butler and Fitzgerald (1999), Digman (1990) and Guynes and Vanecek (1996) defined critical success factors as the main areas to be be achived in order for any business to succeed. The continued participation of Abu Dhabi government in the R&D projects necessitated the need to determine critical success factors that R&D project managers must consider to ensure successful completion (Byat & Sultan, 2014). Research and development projects funded by governments have become very common in many countries around the world the projects are mainly aimed at developing and promoting national science as well as technological and human capital competence. Most of these researches are handled by either academic research and development institutions or just research and development institutions. In most cases, the projects have long term targets requiring high intellectual inputs (Yamazaki, Matsushima & MIZUNO,The risk factor facing government funded projects is usually high while their benefits may not be tangible. Also, the success of such projects may not be guaranteed due to various factors which will be examined during the study. The key factors that determine whether government funded R&D projects will succeed or fail are believed to have a relationship to various parameters, such as technological maturity, circumstances surrounding government funded R&D projects as well as the available environment for commercialization. 3. Literature ReviewDefinition of Critical Success Factors The definition of critical success factors differs depending on how they are used and applied in businesses and analytics (Gomes, Angwin, Weber, and Tarba,The most common definition of critical success factors is that these are any identified variables that contribute to the success of a project or initiative in meeting its set goals or mission (Fu, et.al, 2014). This definition applies to all factors and variables that are considered to be key components of a strategy that increases its chances of success and variables that make a strategy more viable compared to other alternatives ( Robertson and Wooster, 2013). Critical success factors are also used to measure the success of a strategy or project as Alvani, Bemanian, and Hoseinalipour (2014) explain that critical success factors in building maintenance are often used to evaluate a completed project to validate its success or identify areas that needs improvement when a strategy or project has failed to accomplish its goals. The same definition is also used by Gomes, et.al (2012) in strategic mergers and acquisition, stating that pre-acquisition and post-acquisition factors are evaluated to determine if a merger is a success. Based on the reviewed literature, critical success factors are variables that determine the success or failure of a project in meeting its objectives or mission. Critical success factors are important because their absence or misinterpretation can ultimately lead to the failure of a project or prevent an organization from completing its mission or objective ( Robertson and Wooster, 2013). Under this definition, identification of critical success factors and careful management practices based on these variables greatly increases the chance of success for a project or organization. The R&D projects funded by the governments have been very challenging while trying to clarify various factors contributing to their success (Yamazaki et al.,Regardless of the challenges, Yamazaki et al., (2012) mentioned that key objective for these projects must be clear and public funds should be utilized in an efficient manner to ensure success of the projects. Project managers need to identify all possible success factors to be observed. Although the researches on key success factors of managing government funded different scholars have conducted R&D projects and in different times, their findings have been consistent (Ofori, 2013). For any R&D project to be successful there has to be proper process management. According to Nagesh and Thomas (2015), top management support and leadership competence are important in ensuring success of government funded R&D projects. In addition, the study conducted by Alhashemi et al. identified various factors such as inadequate communication, effective transfer of technology, thorough assessment, and feasibility studies as important in ensuring success of the government-funded projects in the UAE (2008). According to the study conducted by Daniel F. Ofori, project success depends on the ability mangers to adequately deliver the expected project quality within the specified time and cost (2013). He identified various management factors believed to be important in ensuring that the projects succeed. The factors include support from the top management, project schedule, client consultation, recruitment and training of personnel, technical tasks, acceptance by the client, proper monitoring and feedback, communication and timely troubleshooting of arising crises (Ofori, 2013). Other key success factor include managers having clear project objectives, realistic estimates of time and cost of completing the project, adequate resources, clear project missions as well as project ownership (Ofori, 2013).Definition of Research and Development (R&D) Research and Development (R&D) is any corporate or government activity or initiative that results in innovation that can improve the services and products offered by an organization (Phillips and Zhdanov,Doraszelski and Jaumandreu (2013) and Marchi (2012) explain that R&D can be divided into two general categories based on application. These are applying existing knowledge and technology that can be used to create new products or services and research and study in different scientific fields to identify technology that has yet to be used in a given industry. In both cases, the role of R&D is to provide a solution to a determined business need, may it be on how to gain competitive advantage over other companies or on how to improve current practices to further increase revenue and increase market share ( Takalo, Tanayama, and Toivanen, 2013). Organizational innovation that can lead to improved market share and increased revenue, are directly related to proper R&D funding allocation, demonstrating that that proper R&D support can lead to sustained growth for a company (Block,Takalo, Tanayama, and Toivanen (2013) assert that companies that invest in R&D experienced sustained growth in terms of increasing revenue and supply-chain over a period of years after R&D findings are implemented by the company. Z?¤iga-Vicente, Alonso-Borrego, Forcadell, and Gal?n (2012) have similar findings when it comes to R&D initiatives funded by the government in state-run organizations. Belderbos, Carree, Lokshin, and Fernandez, (2014) have also made similar finding in their study, explaining the significance of R&D in success of a company, highlighting its major contribution in their review of collaborative practices of successful companies within their different departments. From the reviewed literature, Research and Development (R&D) can be defined as any organizational practice that facilitate future product or service development. The purpose of R&D is therefore based on addressing strategic or long-term goals for the future can even be considered as a critical success factor for companies that rely on making technological innovation to remain fluid and significant in their respective markets.Importance of R&D projects in Business Development Studies show that business development rely on R&D to develop future strategies and new products and services to maintain their relevance in their respective markets (Block, 2012) . The study of Belderos, et.al, (2014) assert that innovation remains a fundamental function of R&D to ensure that a business keeps on getting revenue based on the products and services it was known for. Belederos (2014) also explained that while the discovery of ground breaking technology may occur in a specific field, the overall objective of increasing revenue and maintaining services should be the core objectives of R&D. This finding is consistent with the findings of the studies of Frishammar, Lichtenthaler and Rehnquist (2012) that determined that commercialization of technology as the most efficient usage and purpose of R&D management and the study of Tassey (2012) that have determined that R&D investment is a necessity for smaller and already established organizations and to ensure their processes remain relevant and appropriate. This definition is quite different from Z?¤iga-Vicente, et.al (2012) when the government is involved given that R&DŸ??s importance to government-business collaborations or in government-managed companies, is to ensure that an organization successfully provides service or product based on a fixed budget and financial goals. In this study, Z?¤iga-Vicente, et.al demonstrate that government funding for R & D is most centred on discovering new technology to make existing products and services to remain cost-effective, implying that innovative findings made by the R & D ensures that a product or service remains available as long as it is needed. The same finding was determined by the study of Fu, et.al, (2014), explaining that government involvement will change the focus from company revenues to ensuring that proposed project or venture will continue to meet or assume its intended purpose using innovative technology to maintain and update existing business. In all of these studies, the importance of R&D in business development stems from the belief that innovation would ensure the fluidity and adaptability of companies for the future. Government and private organizations achieve this in different ways, with the former focusing on ensuring that a funded project remains relevant and fulfil its purpose for the future, while other organizations are more focused on maximizing revenue by improving the efficiency of their practices and discovering new products to sell.R&D projects in the emirate of Abu Dhabi The continued participation of Abu Dhabi government in the R&D projects necessitated the need to determine key success factors that project managers ought to embrace while the projects to ensure successful completion (Byat & Sultan, 2014). Abu Dhabi has made significant efforts to shift its energy needs and image in the international community by investing heavily in knowledge-based industries and projects through R & D. Henni (2015) published the vision of the Abu Dhabi, explaining that the emirate desired transition from a hydro-carbon based economy to knowledge-based industries through collaboration with academics and the private industry. This report effectively illustrates how R&D are outsourced, where knowledgeable, human resources are hired as consultants for R&D by the government to achieve a common objective. Probert, Connell, and Mina (2013) mentioned that large scale use academic resource people which is mostly seen as a favorable practice when the government is involved because the government has the resources to hire external resources. Other studies made by Ferroukhi, et.al (2013) and Ansari, Haroun, Rahman, and Chilingar (2015) show that Abu Dhabi has invested heavily in R & D projects in different industries to help them shift to green energy from a carbon-based and fossilized energy sources. The R&D projects funded by the governments have been very challenging while trying to clarify various factors contributing to their success (Cui et al.The innovations steps spearheaded by governments in UAE, under the three main pillars of financial capital, technological capital and human capital, have provided a stepping stone for government involvement in research and development (Byat and Sultan, 2014). Through the pillar of financial capital, the government of Abu Dhabi has been actively funding various state projects to foster both innovative ecosystem and promote economic developments. For instance, the Khalifa fund and Ÿ??The Expo 2020 Partnership FundŸ? require successful management to ensure that the funds are utilized efficiently towards the achievement of their intended purpose (Byat and Sultan, 2014). The available evidence confirming involvement of the government in funding the research and development projects informed the decision to evaluate the effectiveness of key stakeholders in ensuring successful implementation of the projects. Study on research and development projects undertaken by the Abu Dhabi government in conjunction with the private sectors shows various success factors affecting implementation of the projects (Alhashemi, 2008). All of these studies show that Abu Dhabi is an attractive place for the R&D market as the government itself has shown the willingness to fund R&D projects in its bid to shift its energy needs. All of these studies also show that Abu Dhabi has recognized the value of the academia, and other individuals, with similar talents and knowledge, and have efforts to hire them to help improve the country. Reviewed literature shows that the proper use of R&D as an effective tool for innovating the future and may serve as an important critical success factor for future development.Leadership Support in completion of R&D projects According to Dobbins and Donnelly (1998), a project life cycle mainly runs through four major phases, which include conceptualization, planning, execution, and termination. The same article places leadership at the very importance second phase Ÿ?? planning- in terms of Top Management Support. The primary function of leadership support to R&D projects is to ensure constant flow or allocation to R&D to allow them sufficient time to accomplish their tasks and goals. The study of Marchi (2012) equates continuous financial support of R&D with the highest level of cooperation they can provide to help the R&D department accomplish their goals. The study determined that the confidence and performance of the R&D improve significantly if members are confident that their funding and support will continue. Similarly, the study of Doraszelski, and Jaumandreu (2013) has determined the correlation between improved R&D productivity with leadership support, explaining that involved companies that more established companies will benefit more from R&D because the leadership of these companies generally have the foresight and patience to devote continuous resources to their respective R&D departments because they can afford to, both in time and resources. The leadership of other companies and start-ups that have excellent R&D departments were determined to take advantage of any successful discovery by increasing production of a newly discovered technology or product (Robertson and Wooster, 2013). Either way, the results are similar with motivating factor behind leadership support is the promise of increased revenues in profits. Leadership in R&D departments when the government is involved is different since they value the fulfillment of goals within a shorter amount of time as mentioned in the study of Steinhilber, S., Wells and Thankappan (2013) concerning government involvement with the production of electric cars has revealed that government leadership generally suffer from short-sightedness, desiring the production of results within a specified amount of time. These restrictions, while also present in private companies, are more prevalent when the government is involved, especially if the leadership changes because of factors such as term of office, elections or appointments. These results are supported by the studies of Mason and Brown (2011) and Westmore (2013) showing that leadership seen in government collaborations are more invested with the final output and its application rather than its projected return on investment. Furthermore, Westmore (2013) determined that government and R&D collaborations are often affected by other factors outside business development that may hinder productivity compared to the private sector. From these literature, it can be observed the impact of the leadership support to R&D departments is with resource allocation and the vision and objectives that the R&D departments should follow. The private sector is mostly concerned with output technology and its role in increasing revenue and production while R&D supported by the government are mostly concerned with technology output and its broader applications.Human Capital Readiness to complete R&D projects Human capital readiness refer to access of skilled and competent individuals to complete R & D projects (Block,In most cases, qualified human capital is a finite or limited resource requiring careful management and outsourcing to obtain them for R&D projects (Probert, Connell, and Mina, 2013). The study of Probert, Connell, and Mina, (2013) provides a good representation of qualified human resources for R&D, explaining that the knowledge and expertise of qualified individuals are highly-valued but have limited use outside of the projects they are involved with. These individuals are often found in universities and hiring them is often seen as a luxury for many organizations and may help explain why R&D investments vary. In these regard, the value of these individuals lie with their willingness to consult and oversee R&D projects and not as permanent employees of a company (Probert, Connell, and Mina, 2013). Probert, Connell, and Mina (2013) also adds that outsourcing these services remain a viable solution for government and private companies alike. Similar findings were made by the study of Guan and Yam (2015) on the effects of outsourced R&D staff with the Chinese economy during the 90Ÿ??s and with Becker (2014) that illustrated the profitable relationship between outsourced R&D departments such as universities with private and government organizations. Becker (2014) adds that government companies typically can afford longer term, outsourced services for specific projects, compared with private companies, which often have the capability to manage their own R&D departments that may fulfil other purpose such as data gathering and analysis. While both private and government companies both benefit from outsourced studies have also shown that outsourced R&D projects are more prevalent when the government is involved Becker (2014). The study of Cunningham and Link (2014) regarding the R&D practices of EU countries have determined that business collaboration, both private and government, with universities increases the efficiency and effectiveness of investments and projects in certain fields such as in power management and distribution. Cunningham and Link (2014) explain that obtaining permanent services of these outsourced individuals and companies may be more beneficial for the government to delegate specific services and maintenance such as in mass transport and infrastructure. This process may be slower compared to what is observed in private companies (Doraszelski and Jaumandreu, 2013), but the resulting output and technology developed are still beneficial and have positive effects to long-term projects and goals. Reviewed literature shows that outsourcing qualified human capital and resources is considered by many organizations, both private and the government, as an effective means of completing their projects. While many private companies can afford to develop and hire their own R&D departments, government involvement is mostly limited to outsourcing these services and have proven to be an effective method for project completion and producing innovative technology. 4. Research Aims, Objectives, Questions, & Hypothesis 4.1 Research aims The R&D projects funded by the governments have been very challenging while trying to clarify various factors contributing to their success (Yamazaki et al.,Considering the case of Abu Dhabi, the government has come out strongly in the involvement of key development projects. The governmentŸ??s influence has been felt from R&D stage to actual implementation of the projects. 4.2 Research Objectives This research targets to evaluate critical success factors that are being implemented by managers in-charge of government funded R&D projects in Abu Dhabi. The evaluationŸ??s goal is to determine whether the factors used by managers are successful or unsuccessful in managing research and development projects. 4.3 Research questions What are the key success factors that are appropriate of managing government funded R&D projects in the emirate of Abu Dhabi in the UAE? 6. Research Methodology, Methods & Sample Design This research will determine the critical success factors used to manage government funded R&D projects in Abu Dhabi and their contribution to the countryŸ??s economy. Specific attention will be given to the ongoing research projects funded by the government. To determine key success factors of managing projects, a goal based evaluation of the ongoing government funded projects will be conducted by use of structured interviews and questionnaire survey where a mixed method will be followed. Quantitative Approach: The research model will be developed prior to the data collection stage to ensure that the variables that will be mentioned in the questionnaires are valid. The survey will include a list of factors extracted from the literature where participants will be asked to specify the most important factors. Also, identification of both successful and unsuccessful factors will be considered as indicators of the main goal of research and utilized during data analysis process, to determine if the main goal has been achieved. Qualitative Approach: Structured interviews will be conducted with leaders of R&D projects that have been successfully implemented to assess their views about the critical success factors which will be prioritized as a result of the questionnaire. This step will involve identification of issues that managers consider to be key success factors in managing government funded R&D projects. Managers will be required to fill the interview forms by listing and indicating their understanding of the various factors affecting success of the R&D projects. Selection of participants Recruitment and selection of participants will be based on random sampling techniques. The inclusion criteria will involve selection of 4 government organizations that have undertaken a projection up to completion following a successful government funded R&D project in Abu Dhabi. These organizations include but not limited to: The Petroluem Institute MASDAR Institute ADWEA MUBADALA The survey process will involve top managers from the selected organization, who will be presented with a questionnaire concerning various management factors necessary for success of the projects. Managers will be required to fill a written to approve their participation in the research as well as to protect them from all ethical issues that can result from the study. Also, they will be assured of their safety and privacy, as well as that of their Firms, during and after the research. Managers will have to tick in the appropriate space depending on their perception if the factor is successful or unsuccessful in the management of research project. Analysis of key success factors Analysis process of the results obtained after the interview will involve reordering of success factors depending on the managersŸ?? decision. Success factors selected by many managers will be listed first while that selected by few managers, or none at all, will appear last in the list. The order of success factors by basing on the managers choices and decision will facilitate their ranking of the key issues. 7. Field Access A written approval from the government organizations management will be obtained prior conducting the research to ensure that there is a proper access to the information and data required. Meetings will be organized with concerned people to ensure that there is support from the studied organizations. 8. Ethical Considerations To ensure that the ethical factors are taken into consideration, all the data gathered from the surveys and interviews will be validated by the organizations themselves. Also, participantsŸ?? identity will be kept anonymous to ensure that they are not affected. The research progress will be shared continuously with the supervisor and the co supervisor. As a researcher I will follow the ethical clearance process in the university. 9. Deliverables After completing the project, a list of key successful factors of managing government funded R&D projects will be forwarded to the responsible government departments as well as firms carrying out the research for implementation. Also, there will be a provision of the desired timeline of implementing the recommendation, after which a follow up should be undertaken to verify the progress. The follow up step is important to ensure that the research was not only able to achieve the desired goals but also contributed towards successful management of government research projects in Abu Dhabi. Also, the follow up exercise is important to determine which factors are attainable and which ones are not attainable. 10. Applicability & Significance Abu Dhabi has become popular in the world following the completed and ongoing government funded projects. Most of the projects have been contracted to the international Companies capable of undertaking the tasks up to completion. Most of the projects required multibillion funding from the Government. Looking at the projects that could not be completed within the stipulated timeframe, various management issues emerge. Therefore, implementation of this proposal will provide a road map of key success factors of managing government funded R&D projects in the emirate of Abu Dhabi in the UAE. Identification of management factors such as, senior management commitment, coordination and integration, thorough feasibility as well as assessment study will not only be beneficial to the Abu Dhabi but also to the entire management profession. Successful implementation of this research will increase confidence among members of the public in government funded R&D projects. That is, they will be able to see the timely completion and success of the projects after R&D process. The research findings will have a far-reaching importance in the field of project management. The recommendations from the research will add to the existing knowledge of successful factors of managing R&D projects, not only those that are funded by the government but also those under the private sector. 11. Resources Required to Implement the Project Successful implementation of this project will depend on the commitment to conduct a thorough data collection form various firms undertaking government funded R&D projects. Since the research will entail a lot of travelling to meet managers of the firms carrying out research activities and well as making phone calls to set up survey and interview dates, a lot of time and financial support will be required to cater for the expenses. 12. Schedule & Milestones Research Activities Duration Identification of both completed and ongoing government funded R&D projects 3 weeks Contacting the managers of the firms involved in implementation of R&D projects 1 week Issuing of the questionnaire survey 1 week Collecting and analyzing of data collected through questionnaire survey, to determine firms viable for interview exercise 2 months Setting interview dates with managers of the selected firms 3 days Conducting the interviews. 1 month Analyzing the data collected from the interview and ranking of the key success factors. 2 Months Compiling the results of analysis and writing of the research report. 3 months Forwarding the recommendation to the responsible government department for consideration. 3 days Writing the Literature Review 6 months 13. References & Bibliography Alhashemi, M. Y. (2008). Critical Success & Failure Factors for Public Private Partnership Projects in the UAE (Doctoral dissertation, British University in Dubai). Alvani, E., Bemanian, M., & Hoseinalipour, M. (2014). Analysis of Critical Success Factors in Design-Build Projects; a Case study of Karaj Urban Projects. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering and Technology, 1(6), 519-523. Ansari, A., Haroun, M., Rahman, M. M., & Chilingar, G. V. (2015). Assessing the Environomic Feasibility of Electrokinetic Low-Concentration Acid IOR in Abu Dhabi Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Oil & Gas India Conference and Exhibition. Becker, B. (2014). Public R&d Policies And Private R&d Investment: A Survey Of The Empirical Evidence. Journal of Economic Surveys, 29(5), 917-942. Belderbos, R., Carree, M. A., Lokshin, B., & Fernandez, S. J. (2014). Inter-Temporal Patterns of R&D Collaboration and Innovative Performance. SSRN Electronic Journal SSRN Journal. Block, J. H. (2012). R&D investments in family and founder firms: An agency perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(2), 248-265. Byat, A. B., & Sultan, O. (2014). The United Arab Emirates: Fostering a Unique Innovation Ecosystem for a Knowledge-Based Economy. The Global Innovation Index, 101 Cooper, R. G., & Kleinschmidt, E. J. (2007). Winning businesses in product development: The critical success factors. Research-Technology Management, 50(3), 52-66. Cui, Z., Loch, C., Grossmann, B., & He, R. (2012). How provider selection and management contribute to successful innovation outsourcing: An empirical study at Siemens. Production and Operations Management, 21(1), 29-48. Cunningham, J. A., & Link, A. N. (2014). Fostering university-industry R&D collaborations in European Union countries. Int Entrep Manag J International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(4), 849-860. Dobbins and Donnelly (1998). Summary Research report on critical success factors in federal government program management. Acquisition Review QuarterlyŸ??Winter. Duening, T. N. Click, R. L. (2005). Essentials of Business Process Outsourcing. John Wiley and Sons: Hoboken Doraszelski, U., & Jaumandreu, J. (2013). R&D and Productivity: Estimating Endogenous Productivity. The Review of Economic Studies, 80(4), 1338-1383. Ferroukhi, R., GhazalŸ?Aswad, N., Androulaki, S., Hawila, D., & Mezher, T. (2013). Renewable energy in the GCC: Status and challenges. Int J of Energy Sector Man International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 7(1),


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