The purpose of a position paper is to generate support on an issue. It describes a position on an issue and the rational for that position. The position paper is based on facts that provide a solid foundation for your argument. In the position papers, you should: Use evidence to support your position, such as statistical evidence, events, research. ? Validate your position with authoritative references. ? Examine the strengths and weaknesses of your position. ? Evaluate possible solutions and suggest courses of action. You will be given different issues to evaluate. You may find you already formed an opinion; however, in writing about an issue, you must examine your opinion of the issue critically. Prior to writing your position paper, define and limit your issue carefully. Many issues are complex with multiple solutions. Narrow the topic of your position paper to something that is manageable. Research your issue thoroughly, consulting outside resources (in addition to the ones you are given in each paper prompt). You are required to have at least two outside sources to support your assertions. Please use the following structure for the position paper: I. Introduction II. Background III. Sides of the Issue IV. Actions V. Conclusion The introduction paragraph should clearly identify the issue. Provide a basic foundation as to the current situation associated with the issue. The last sentence is your thesis sentence (your statement of the position). This should state what your position is on the issue (whether you are ?for? or ?against?). The body paragraphs will contain several paragraphs. Each paragraph should present an idea or main concept that clarifies a portion of the position statement and is supported by evidence (facts). Evidence can be primary source quotations*, statistical data, interviews with experts, and indisputable dates or events. Evidence should lead, through inductive reasoning, to the main concept or idea presented in the paragraph. The body should begin with some background information. Background information should be included to give context to the issue. This will include the historical origin of the problem to explain why the problem is a problem (the implications and ramifications), and who is impacted by this issue. Incorporate a discussion of both sides of the issue, incorporating talking points from each of the articles that are given to you. Your position on the issue should be expanded here. Discuss why the points you agree with are valid points. By discussing counter arguments, you are able to talk about why those are not valid. Discussion of possible courses of action and solutions should display critical thinking skills that takes into consideration feasibility, political/social climate, and cost-effectiveness. The conclusion should summarize and reinforce the main concepts and ideas without repeating the introduction or body of the paper. *Note: Limit your use of quotes to no more than 10% of your paper. Paraphrasing (writing it in your own words) is one way to use text without directly quoting source materials. You still need to cite this, but it helps to limit the use of direct quotes. Paraphrasing is your own rendition of information that is presented by someone else. Formatting The papers should be submitted as a word document attachment, double-spaced, Times New Roman, 12-point font, with one-inch margins on all sides. This is a formal paper, meaning it should be written in full paragraphs (do not give an outline or incomplete sentences). No first person is allowed in this paper. Even though this paper is based on your position, present your ideas using third person voice. Grammar, spelling, and punctuation are expected to meet the same standards as are required in English classes. Citations APA or AMA citations are required. If you have questions on how to cite, please either talk the professor, writing center, or the librarian ahead of the due date of this paper. While you already know this, academic integrity is expected and enforced. If a case of plagiarism is detected, that student will not only receive a -0- score on their paper, but may also be downgraded on the course?s final grade (even an F for the course is an option I can take). I will also report this to the Office of the University Provost for violating ASU?s academic integrity policy. So, it is your responsibility to understand plagiarism. Please visit the following page to understand what academic integrity is: https://provost.asu.edu/academicintegrity . I also have a document called APA Citation Hints and Info Sheet on blackboard. Be sure to review this document in its entirety. Reputable Web Sites The information they provide is based on research and facts, not on fiction, ideological myth and hearsay, and hyped media reports with a political agenda. In accessing information from a website, you need to exercise a discerning eye to maintain your own credibility; be an educated and intelligent consumer of information! Wikipedia, blogs, forums and similar cites are not academically reputable sites and are not acceptable in this class. Issue Paper Prompts Population Policies ? Should policies and/or regulations be in effect for controlling the world?s population? Keystone XL Pipeline Extension ? Should the Keystone XL Pipeline be extended from Canada through the United States? The Keystone XL Pipeline and its Politics, Explained by Juliet Eilperin https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2013/04/03/the-keystone-xl-pipelineand-its-politics-explained/ Experts Say that Battle on Keystone Pipeline is over Politics, not Facts by Coral Davenport https://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/09/us/senate-panel-approves-keystone-pipelinebill.html Note: For the Keystone position paper, be very careful about the sources you use. When doing a google search, you will find many biased sources (from special interest groups, various opinions, etc.). Be sure to use credible sources! You will lose points for not using credible sources.