Choose from one of the two following questions/topics below. One of the most common cropping rotationson the Palouse is winter wheat followed by a spring grain followed by a legume. Three relatively common weed species include wild oats (Avena fatua), prickly lettuce, also known as China lettuce (Lactuca serriola), and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). Briefly describe (1 paragraph each) the life-cycle, life history and colonization stages (see Gliessman chapter 13 for more details) of each weed species as well as their ecological niche within this cropping rotation. Then describe how this information will be of value to you as a weed scientist working with farmers to effectively manage the populations of all three weeds. Come up with at least three novel weed management strategies, based on population ecology, species interactions and/or agroecosystem diversity and stability that would be most effective in assisting farmers to manage all of these weed species. Your goal is to reduce (not necessarily eliminate) the reliance of herbicides through the introduction of ecological weed control methods. Changes or modifications to the rotation are acceptable (but not necessary), as long as these three primary crops (winter wheat, spring grain, legume) remain prominent in the rotation. Intercroppingis valuable tool used throughout the world to increase productivity on a limited amount of land. For this essay, choose a cropping system of your choice anywhere in the world that utilizes intercropping or has the potential to utilize intercropping. Describe in detail all the crops involved in your chosen cropping system (well referenced) and if intercropping is currently used, how the crops interact. If intercropping is not currently being used, describe three potential candidate crops for intercropping. Clearly define your keystone crop species and your intercropping goals and develop a new and improved intercropping strategy. Be sure to be very specific about how your new intercropping system is an improvement over the current farming system. This is your chance to develop the intercropping system of your dreams, so be sure to give all possible options much consideration. Include at least one table on using LER to show how your novel intercropping will improve the productivity per unit area over the existing cropping system. Format should include: A 1 to 1.5 page single spaced, well-referenced Introductionto the topic. Include a literature review and conclude with clearly defined objectives and/or an outline of your essay. A 3 to 4 page (single spaced) Discussionaddressing your hypothesis and detailing the why and the how of your topic through a thorough and thoughtful argument. Be sure to reference any claims you make. A short (~ ® page single spaced) Conclusion.