Teaching ESL in Middle Schools Research Paper Assignment Essay

Teaching ESL in Middle Schools Research Paper Assignment Essay

Introduction [Text Introduce the dissertation topic in one or more paragraphs (2 pages maximum). The study topic should be briefly described to establish the main ideas and context. Include recent, scholarly, peer-reviewed sources to support each assertion. The Introduction should orient the reader to all of the concepts presented in the sections that follow. Key words related to the research topic should be defined clearly and precisely upon first use and used consistently throughout the paper. This will help to establish and maintain the central focus of the paper. Review the Doctoral Candidacy Resource Guide for more information about applied degree expectations with regard to the study topic and design requirements.] Note: Do not describe the study purpose or method in the introduction as these belong in later sections. Statement of the Problem The documented problem that is identified may be a practical problem or issue in the profession or study context for which there is not already an acceptable solution. In defining the problem a clear discrepancy must be drawn between that which exists currently and that which is desired. Although an applied study design does not necessarily require generalizability beyond the study site, worthy problems must be relevant and documented beyond any particular study site. To identify and articulate a problem, consider the potential negative consequences to the field or stakeholders if the proposed research is never conducted. [Text Present a general issue/observation that is grounded in the research literature and leads to the need for the study (in most cases scholarly citations within the last 5 years are required to document the general and specific problem). Follow with a focused, documented problem that directly reflects and leads to the need for a research response.] Note: Ensure that the concepts presented in the problem statement lead to and align directly with the Purpose Statement. Use of a logic  map is highly recommended in order to ensure direct alignment and avoid surprises  among the key elements: problem ˜ purpose ˜research questions ˜ proposed method and design. Purpose of the Study [Text The purpose of this [quantitative, qualitative, mixed method] study is to (describe the study goal that directly reflects and encompasses the research questions).  Follow with a brief, but clear overview of how, with what instruments/data, with whom and where (as applicable).] Within the Purpose Statement: The research method is identified as qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method. The stated purpose reflects the research questions: variables/constructs and/or phenomenon/concept/idea are identified (See the Applied Degree Guidebook for additional information). The research design is clearly stated and is aligned with the problem statement. The participants and/or data sources are identified (See the Applied Degree Guidebook for additional information). The geographic location of study is identified (as appropriate). Before moving forward, ensure that the purpose is a logical, explicit research response to the stated problem. The study results should make a contribution to the field or practice and have implications that are relevant beyond any particular study site. Research Questions Before listing the research questions, introductory information should be presented in a discussion context. The research questions are to be distinct and answerable, given the identified constructs/phenomenon and population. Note: Do not include specific interview or survey question/items here.Quantitative: Research questions are included and the question list is followed by corresponding list of proposed hypothesis(es). Ensure the research questions and hypothesis(es) are aligned with the purpose statement. The research questions and hypotheses must be directly answerable, specific and testable based on the data collected.Qualitative: Proposed research questions that are related to the phenomenon are stated. The proposed research questions must be aligned with purpose statement. Qualitative research questions should be open-ended and reflect the nature of the qualitative design (avoid yes/no and closed ended questions).Mixed Method: includes all of the above. Separate and indicate the qualitative and quantitative questions, followed by corresponding quantitative hypotheses. [Text Brief introductory text. Note: Avoid redundant text] Q1. Q2. Additional questions as needed. Hypotheses (Quantitative/Mixed Studies Only. Delete this section if the proposed study is qualitative.) Both null hypotheses and alternative hypotheses must be stated. Each must directly correspond with a research question. Hypotheses must be stated in testable, potentially negatable, form with each variable operationalized. Note: Each hypothesis represents one distinct testable prediction. Upon testing, each hypothesis must be entirely supported or entirely negated. H10. [Null Hypothesis Text ] H1a. [Alternative Hypothesis Text ] Definition of Key Terms [Text (optional) Definitions given represent key operational terms, words or phrases used in a unique way or that are not commonly used or understood. Definitions might include terms related to the study topic and context that are not commonly known. Definitions should be supported with citations and/or noted as being those of the researcher with corresponding rationale/support. Commonly known terms should not be defined. Note: All definitions included in the list should clear, concise, and directly related to the proposed study. Definitions that represent general concepts, constructs, theories, and main ideas related to the research topic should be discussed in other sections of the paper. It is not necessary or appropriate to define or describe introductory research and statistical concepts such the differences between qualitative and quantitative methods or correlation, t test, ANOVA, multiple regression and so on. Variable/Construct operational definitions are to be located within the Research Method section.] Term 1. Definition (APA citation). Term 2. Definition (APA citation). Term n. Definition (APA citation). Brief Review of the Literature Note: When the proposal is eventually developed, this section of the Concept Paper should be incorporated into the Background section in Chapter 1 and/or the Literature Review of Chapter 2 as appropriate. [Text The discussion should have depth and present an integrated critical analysis and synthesis of the scholarly, peer-reviewed literature that provides a foundation and context for the dissertation study. The discussion should be comprehensive, organized, and flow logically. The brief review of literature should not be a list of one article summary after another or an annotated bibliography. Use themes and/or subtopics as headings. Identify the themes or sub-topics around which the literature review has been organized into a coherent narrative discussion. In the review, at least 7 to 10 of the most important works or studies that touch upon the dissertation topic or problem should be discussed. Be sure to include works that provide alternate or opposing perspectives on the proposed topic area to demonstrate unbiased research. Focus particularly on those works that address main ideas in the field, describe areas of controversy, and indicate areas of incomplete knowledge and relate them to the envisioned study problem, purpose, and research questions. Include historical and germinal works as well as current works (within the last 5 years). Continue to expand and update the literature review until the final dissertation is submitted. Note: Emphasize key findings and interpretations to build a coherent narrative of the current state of the literature rather than focus on researchers/authors (other than seminal authors in the field) and specific study designs (i.e., unless the author, specific design, analytics, sample size or geographic location are directly relevant, it is usually not necessary to describe them). Review the Background and Literature Review sections of published, peer-reviewed journal articles for examples of academic writing. Please note the literature review will contain several headings specific to the topic. With the exception of key, seminal authors, the majority of references should be scholarly, peer-reviewed and published within the last 5 years. Theme/Sub-Topic 1 [Repeat, as needed ] [Text ] Summary [Text ] Research Method Because the research plan is in the concept paper stage, a highly detailed research design is not expected. The concept paper, however, provides a foundation for the next step in the dissertation process, the development of the proposal. A well-conceived, well written and well researched concept paper serves as a foundation for the remainder of dissertation work. Dissertation research is an iterative and often recursive process. Students should expect to revise numerous times before each milestone document is finalized. Although not required at this stage, students and faculty may find it useful to review the dissertation proposal template to begin to consider what will be required at the proposal stage, for example, design details and ethical considerations. Note: If students wish to provide additional subheadings to organize the content of the discussion in this section, the dissertation proposal template Ch. 3 subheading wording/organization/format should be followed rather than developing unique subheadings. [Text Discuss the proposed research method (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed). An Applied Research study must reflect an applied study goal and demonstrate validity within the context of the chosen research design and overall scientific rigor. Case studies, action research, and program development/ evaluation are appropriate. A clear rationale behind the chosen questions for study, the particular data gathering techniques and data analyses should be provided. Clear decision paths are provided based on the associated research method/design. Sample size and method must be appropriate and justified based on the nature of the study design. Quantitative analyses must include justified sample size determination. Given an appropriate rationale for replication, replication studies in an original context are permitted. In this section, describe and substantiate the appropriateness of the method and design to respond to the stated problem, purpose and research questions. The discussion should not simply be a listing and description of research designs; rather, elaboration demonstrates how the proposed method and design accomplish the study goals, why the design is the optimum choice for the proposed research, and how the method aligns with the purpose and research questions. Provide appropriate foundational research method support for the proposed study design; for example, refer to Moustakas and other appropriate authors to describe a phenomenological design and Yin to describe the appropriate application of a case study design.Note: Avoid introductory research design and analyses descriptions as well as excessive reference to textbook authors such as Creswell and Neuman. General research methods textbooks are not intended to provide the detail needed to implement qualitative research designs. Do not provide detailed descriptions of particular methods or designs that were not chosen.] Operational Definition of Variables (Quantitative/Mixed Studies Only. Delete this section if the proposed study is qualitative.) [Text (optional) Identify each of the primary constructs associated with the research question(s), and hypotheses. Include a brief overview of how each will be operationally defined for the proposed study. Operational definitions should be based on published, validated, research and instruments (describe and document how previous authors and/or the proposed instrument operationally defined each variable construct. Note: Operational Definitions are distinct from the Definition of Terms.] Construct/Variable 1. Description/Operational Definition. Describe each variable, the nature of the variable (e.g., nominal, ordinal, interval), how each variable will vary (e.g., the range 1 ? 5, 0 ? 100) or levels (low, medium, high; male, female) and the data sources (e.g., archival data, survey items, and if appropriate, how the specific scores (categories, etc.) used in the analysis will be derived from the raw data such as summing or averaging responses to survey items or assessments.). Review the previous, established use of proposed instrument, the nature of the variable data collected and analytics for examples.Note: Dissertations are not typically appropriate sources for instruments and operational definitions. Consult the Dissertation Center for guidance on locating pre-existing instruments. Also, review peer-reviewed, published empirical research related to the research topic for potential pre-existing study instruments that may be used as is or adapted with author(s) permission for the purpose of the study. Consult research design sources (including Dissertation Center resources) and ensure that the measurement level of each variable and the expected distributional characteristics of the data are appropriate to, and meet the assumptions of, the proposed statistical analyses (for example, is it likely that the responses will be normally distributed?) Become familiar with non-parametric alternatives to parametric tests to account for the possibility that the data do not meet parametric assumptions. See the Dissertation Center for more information. Measurement [Text Provide a brief description of how study data will be collected, measured and analyzed. Describe the proposed instrument. Please note that survey self-development should be considered only after an exhaustive search for an existing validated instrument (See the Dissertation Center (Survey and Interview Resources) for guidance on such a search). Also, survey self-development will require a multi-step development and validation process, including pilot testing. (See the Dissertation Center (Research Methods Help/Research Workshop) for a tutorial on the multi-step development and validation process for a survey instrument). Review the scholarly literature for examples of how relevant concepts have been measured in the past. Although a highly detailed description is not required at the CP stage, study variables must demonstrate appropriateness to the study purpose and meet the assumptions of the proposed statistical tests. For qualitative studies, describe the proposed instrument or collection (e.g., interviews, observations), and how concepts will be coded and analyzed as appropriate to the proposed design based on primary qualitative research methods and design authors. Include appropriate support for the application of the proposed design. Consult research design and analysis sources including those available in the Dissertation Center for guidance.] Summary [Text Briefly restate the key points, study purpose and proposed research plan.] References Reference 1 Reference 2 Reference n Instructions: This section of the Concept Paper is a list of references cited in text. All resources cited in the concept paper must be included in the list of references. List all references in APA format with the exception noted below. For each reference listed, there must be at least one corresponding citation within the body of the text, and vice-versa. Formatting: Single space each reference citation, along with a .5 inch hanging indent; double space between consecutive references in the reference list (See the Doctoral Candidacy Resource Guide located in the Dissertation Center for NCU exceptions to APA format). Tips: Sort in alpha surname/title order. Only capitalize the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any. Do not bold the title. Know when to italicize and when not to (i.e., periodical/non-periodical/publication versus book/report/paper). Italicize volume (i.e., Journal Name 4, pp. 12-22.). Please refer to the APA Manual, 6th edition and the Writing Center for additional APA guidance. Note: APA6 requires a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) be provided, if one has been assigned (see page 187-192). Example (note single-space references, with double-spacing in-between): Ahn, J. (2004). Electronic portfolios: Blending technology, accountability and assessment. T.H.E. Journal, 31(9), 12-18. U.S. Government Printing Office. (2006). Catalog of U.S. Government publications: New electronic titles. Winslade, J., & Monk, G. (2001). Narrative mediation: A new approach to conflict resolution. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Appendix A Annotated Bibliography Reference 1 Annotation 1 Reference 2 Annotation 2 Reference n Annotation n


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