To what extent do you agree with the view that women are considered as independent in realist plays Assignment Help

To what extent do you agree with the view that women are considered as independent in realist plays Assignment Help

Research Methods In contemporary education, in-service professional development of teachers has been regarded as a critical means of improving the quality of teachers in America if ambitious programs such as the former NCLB initiative are to achieve their objective of ensuring all children have access to quality education regardless of their race, gender, socioeconomic background or disability. As such, the alignment of staff development programs with identified needs is a critical component as evident in Cheung (2013), Gokmenoglu & Clark s (2015) respective research studies. Cheung (2013) identified the effectiveness of staff development programs in improving the attitude of soft science teachers like English and other languages towards writing and their teaching experiences respectively which translates into motivation for students through their enhanced engagement with them and their teaching material. She further argued that current literacy ratings indicate many students lack sufficient literacy skills that reflect their academic level because they did not grasp the basics at lower class levels (Cheung, 2013). As such, the impact of in-service professional development for soft science teachers is in alignment with the government s goals. On the other hand, Gokmenoglu & Clark (2015) argue that teachers are moderately motivated by such reform measures due to reform fatigue. In many countries, including the United States, teachers have consistently fought for greater political consideration only to be undercut for more lucrative government concerns. As such, they do not feel very motivated by reform measures as they have undergone several in the past. Another variable worth considering is teacher prior training or the perceived effect of the in-service professional development on the teacher s overall enhanced effectiveness in the learning environment. Ahmadi & Keshavarti (2013) investigated the perceived effect of the in-service professional development programs on the principles, students and teachers perceived effect before and after the teachers participated in the professional development programs. The variables measured were student evaluation, teaching demonstration and lesson plan preparation skills (Ahmadi & Keshavarti, 2013). For the most part, the principles perceive no change in teachers overall effectiveness in the learning environment. However, the students and teachers observed significant improvements in all three variables measured. Moreover, there were evident gender differences in the overall perception of improved effectiveness where female teachers believed the in-service professional development programs had improved their skills in all three variables, particularly lesson plan preparation. Ironically, the teachers, like the principles, did not believe the programs enhanced their overall work-experience. Instead, it simply sharpened the skills they already had. On the other hand, Saunders (2014) measured the effectiveness of in-service professional development programs over 4 years. Her findings show that research-based professional development programs are extremely effective due to the positive attitude they evoke in teachers. Nonetheless, teachers improved their instructional practices after the program. According to Saunders (2014), providing teachers adequate time to engage with the program material, implement and reflect on its overall effectiveness is critical for positive results. A comparison of national in-service professional development programs between different countries reveals the extent the programs complement the type of staff development intended. Altun (2011) compared British and Turkish programs and concluded that the ownership difference of the programs between the state and the schools was critical to their overall effectiveness. Whereas UK programs were school-owned, Turkish were centralized to the national education body. On the other hand, Maklad (2008) identified the differences in overall strategies between Japanese and Egyptian programs. The Japanese programs proved more effective than the Egyptian ones because they implemented lesson study strategies. As such, the quality of teachers was superior. References Ahmadi, S. & Keshavarzi, A. (2013). A Survey of in-service training programs effectiveness in teaching skills development from the view-point of students, teachers and principals of guidance schools in Shiraz. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 83, 920-925. Altun, T. (2011). INSET (In-Service Education and Training) and Professional Development of Teachers: A comparison of British and Turkish cases. US-China Education Review A 6, 846-858. Cheung, Y. (2013). The impact of an in-service professional development course on writing teacher attitudes and pedagogy, JPD 3(1), 12-18. Gokmenoglu, T. & Clark, C. (2015). Teachers evaluation of professional development in support of national reforms. Issues in Educational Research, 25(4), 442-459. Maklad, A. (2008). In-service teacher training program: A Comparative study between Egypt and Japan. NUE Journal of International Educational Cooperation 3,107-112. Saunders, R. (2014). Effectiveness of research-based teacher professional development: A mixed method study of a four-year systemic change initiative. Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39(4), 166-184.


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